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GRAMMAR FOR ADVANCED LEARNERS 05 ~ ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES

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Người gửi: Thẩm Tâm Vy
Ngày gửi: 10h:14' 20-09-2021
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WORD FORMATION ~ ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES
• English adjectives are formed by adding a suffix to the root, which is often a noun or a verb.
• There is no simple rule for understanding which suffixes to add to a noun or verb, but there are common patterns, which often depend on the origin of the word (Old English, Latin, French, Greek, etc).
• Sometimes the same root can give several adjectives with different suffixes meaning different things.

SUFIXES
 MEANING /
USAGE
ADJECTIVES FROM ROOTS THAT ARE MOSTLY NOUNS

-ISH
from a country or geographical area
Poland ( Polish | England ( English | Denmark ( Danish

-ESE

Genoa ( Genoese | China ( Chinese | Portugal ( Portuguese

-AN

Italy ( Italian | Korea ( Korean | Africa ( African

-I

Israel ( Israeli | Kuwait ( Kuwaiti | Pakistan ( Pakistan

-FUL
rich in / full of
care ( careful | use ( useful | hope ( hopeful

-AN
related to
use ( usual | person ( personal | influence ( influentia

-IC

hero ( heroic | science ( scientific | optimist ( optimistic

-ICAL

physics ( physical | history ( historical | whim ( whimsica

-ARY

order ( ordinary | custom ( customary | image ( imaginary

-Y
having that quality
noise ( noisy | mist ( misty | sleep ( sleepy

-OUS

poison ( poisonous | danger ( dangerous | marvel ( marvelous

-LY

order ( orderly | life ( lively | coward ( cowardly

-SOME

awe ( awesome | loath ( loathsome | quarrel ( quarrelsome

-ISH

snob ( snobbish | sheep ( sheepish | child ( childish


SUFFIXES
MEANING /
USAGE
ADJECTIVES FROM ROOTS THAT ARE MOSTLY VERBS


-ABLE
showing potential quality
adore ( adorable | enjoy ( enjoyable | remark ( remarkable

-IBLE

elect ( eligible | sense ( sensible | access ( accessible

-ANT
performing quality
please ( pleasant | tolerate ( tolerant | ignore ( ignorant

-ENT

urge ( urgent | obey ( obedient | affluence ( affluent

-IVE

talk ( talkative | sense ( sensitive | imagine ( imaginative

-ING
causing effect
please ( pleasing |love ( loving | annoy ( annoying

-ED
receiving effect
please ( pleased | bore ( bored | annoy ( annoyed

* There is a small group of adjectives starting with an A-prefix, which includes words like: alike (identical) / akin (= similar) / awake (= not sleeping) / asleep (= sleeping) / alone (= by oneself) / aware (= conscious, knowing) / aloof (= cold, detached) / ajar (= slightly open for doors)
* These adjectives are only used in attributive position (i.e. not before a noun).




PRACTICE
I. Write the nouns correponding to each of these adjectives and match them to the correct synonym. Look at the example.

0. funny ( fun C
1. sympathetic ...................
2. bad tempered ...................
3. risky ...................
4. wonderful ...................
5. habitual ...................
6. snobbish ...................
A. dangerous
B. awesome
C. amusing
D. quarrelsome
E. aloof
F. customary
G. understanding


II. Write the correct suffix in the spaces choosing between -ING or -ED.
1. I had a very TIR.......... journey so I needed some rest.
2. Oysters are the most DISGUST.......... foods I`ve tried.
3. The gig was rather DISAPPOINT..........: the singer was awfuk.
4. The little boy was hungry and FRIGHTEN..........
5. Fruits like pears or apples can be quite SATISFY.........as well as healthy.
6. In my opinion people who have never travelled aren’t very INTEREST..........
7. When Bill and Emma split up I was so SHOCK..........
8. Why did she have that SURPRIS.......... look in her eyes?

III. Underline the correct adjective in each sentence.
1 Don`t make a noise: the children are sleepy / asleep.
2. We spent a pleased / pleasant evening with the Jeffersons.
3. Don`t make fun of your sister: you know she’s very sensitive / sensible.
4. I can`t even think of eating that lobster: it`s alive / lively.
5. I like my History teacher, but she has such an annoying / annoyed voice.
6. It was a loving / lovely sunny day and I felt happy.
7. Propolis is extremely usual / useful when you have a sore throat.
8. A novel is a book that tells an imaginary / imaginative story.

IV. Make adjectives from the words in the box and put
 
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